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Casa > Exibição > Conteúdo
Qualidade e inspeção
Mar 21, 2018

Quatro categorias básicas de custos de qualidade são descritas a seguir:

1, prevenção---custos incorridos em planejamento, implementação e manutenção de um sistema de qualidade que irá garantir a conformidade com requisitos de qualidade a nível econômico. Um exemplo de custo de prevenção é o treinamento no uso de controle estatístico de processos.

2, avaliação---os custos incorridos na determinação do grau de conformidade com os requisitos de qualidade. Um exemplo de avaliação de custo é a inspeção.

3, falha interna---os custos decorrentes quando produtos, componentes e materiais não cumprem prévio de requisitos de qualidade a transferência de propriedade para o cliente. Um exemplo de custo de falha interna é sucata.

4, falha externa---custos incorridos quando produtos não cumprem os requisitos de qualidade após a transferência da propriedade para o cliente. Um exemplo de custo de falha externa é a garantia.

Embora o nível de controle de qualidade é determinado em grande parte pela teoria da probabilidade e cálculos estatísticos, é muito importante que os processos de coleção de dados do qual dependem esses procedimentos sejam precisas e adequadas. O melhor procedimento estatístico é inútil se alimentados dados defeituosos, e como processos de usinagem, coleta de dados de inspeção em si é um processo com limites práticos de exatidão, precisão, resolução e repetibilidade.

Todos os processos de inspeção e/ou medição podem ser definidos em termos de precisão e repetibilidade, assim como um processo de fabricação é avaliado pela precisão e repeatablity. É possível realizar experimentos controlados, e medidas estatísticas dos resultados podem ser feitas para determinar o desempenho de um método de inspeção em relação as peças a ser inspecionado. Adequação de um ou outro método pode ser julgada com base nos desvios-padrão e os níveis de confiança que se aplicam a cada abordagem, como usado em uma situação de inspeção determinado.     (final)

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